MD Biosciences Blog

Inflammation After Acute ischemic Stroke | Preclinical Models

Posted by MD Biosciences on Feb 14, 2012 3:00:00 PM

The most common form of stroke is acute ischemic stroke (approximately 85% of cases), which is caused by either an atherothrombosis in a major cervical or intracranial artery or an embolism that travels from the heart. The resulting occlusion causes a sudden deficiency of oxygen and glucose in the brain region normally serviced by the blocked artery. Victims of large-vessel ischemic strokes lose on the order of 100 million neurons per hour prior to treatment, causing immediate, permanent neural damage in the infarct area, termed the ischemic core. Further neural damage occurs in the areas surrounding the core, called the penumbra, where the tissue becomes highly inflamed and slowly dies. Stroke sufferers experience a range of neurological deficits including partial paralysis, impaired memory, loss of speech, and/or decreased cognition and many become permanently disabled, requiring institutional care. [1-4]

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Topics: Neuro/CNS

Microglial involvement in Neuropathic Pain: 5 activation pathways

Posted by MD Biosciences on Oct 26, 2011 9:25:00 AM

Neuroinflammation is a common thread in neuropathic pain (NP), regardless of the conditions under which neuropathic pain develops. This opens up a whole new avenue for investigations into neuropathic pain pathology. Since the primary cell type responsible for immune-like functions in the CNS is microglia, many researchers have turned their attention toward working to better understand microglial physiology and its potential involvement in neuropathic pain.

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Topics: Pain

Overview of Microglial Cells in the CNS

Posted by MD Biosciences on Oct 24, 2011 3:56:00 PM

Of the roughly 70% of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that are glia, appromixately 5-10% are microglial cells. Microglial cells are derived from peripheral myeloid progenitor cells that enter the CNS during embryonic development. Though ubiquitous in the CNS, microglial cell densities vary by region. They function to provide structural and trophic support to neurons and serve as the resident immune-competent cells of the CNS, tasked with:

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Topics: Neuro/CNS

Behavior-based Preclinical Nerve Injury Model Findings

Posted by MD Biosciences on Aug 24, 2011 3:00:00 PM

We get a lot of questions on the various neuropathic pain models and how to choose the one that's most appropriate or a comparison of what's involved with each model (e.g. surgery, behaviors, centralization, peripheral vs central involvement etc). We thought it may be helpful to discuss the various aspects of these models to assist with the selection and understanding of the mechanisms and behaviors. Of course, it ultimately depends on the drug target and the pathway involved and we can certainly discuss individual specifics with you.

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Topics: Pain

eBook: Pain & Inflammation Linkage | Targets in Overlap

Posted by MD Biosciences on Jul 19, 2011 12:34:00 PM

Neuropathic pain presents a wide variety of challenges to researchers, not the least of which is the simple fact that neuropathic pain, by definition, requires neuronal damage, which in turn automatically initiates immune response that often inflicts further neuronal damage. The interactions between the nervous system and immune system in the case of neuropathic pain make for a very complex story that is only beginning to unfold:

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Topics: Pain, Inflammation

Wisely Choose Preclinical Model: Large vs. Small Species

Posted by MD Biosciences on Jun 8, 2011 9:46:00 AM

Common models for preclinical efficacy often use rodents as they are readily available, cost effective, easy to handle and most familiar to investigators. In choosing a preclinical model, one also needs to consider the anatomical/functional similarity to humans and there are cases where moving onto a larger species is more relevant to the clinic and human condition. Two of those cases are described below:

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Topics: CRO/outsourcing

Neuropathic Pain | Receptor & Receptor Ion Channels

Posted by MD Biosciences on Jun 7, 2011 9:58:00 AM

This post continues on our discussion of potential inflammation-related drug targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain. See also Pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines as targets in neuropathic pain.

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Topics: Pain

Choosing DNCB or FITC-induced Contact Hypersensitivity Models

Posted by MD Biosciences on Jun 1, 2011 9:37:00 AM

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Topics: Dermal, Inflammation

Cardiovascular Disease & Underlying Inflammatory Events

Posted by MD Biosciences on May 10, 2011 2:51:00 PM

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) including heart disease, vascular disease and atherosclerosis are the most critical global health threats.

An estimated 26 million people are living with the effects of heart disease and is a major cause of death in western society. Until recently the widely held belief was that the CVD is simply the process as a build up of fat on the surface of artery walls. Eventually, this build up of fat blocks the artery and a heart attack or stroke occurs. However, the process has now been identified as a disease of the inner artery wall (intima) and inflammation is a key factor in its progression.

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Topics: Inflammation, Cardiovascular

Inflammation & Pain Processing: Customizable Preclinical Models

Posted by MD Biosciences on May 4, 2011 1:46:00 PM


Chronic, destructive inflammation is at the core of a wide variety of diseases and conditions.

Inflammation, whether acute or chronic, is very often associated with pain. Similar to inflammation, pain can be physiological (an adaptive means of protecting tissues from real or perceived danger) or pathological (chronic, and often debilitating despite resolution of the original stimulus). Chronic pain can be caused by a variety of situations including inflammatory diseases such as osteo‐ and rheumatoid arthritis (inflammatory pain), tumor formation (cancer pain), and nerve injury (neuropathic pain).

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Topics: Pain, Inflammation