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MD Biosciences Blog

iSchemia Cerebral Models | Stroke & Neurodegeneration

Posted by MD Biosciences on Apr 19, 2012 7:45:00 AM

Preclinical stroke models are critical to our understanding of the mechanisms and neurological deficits following human stroke. While reducing infarct size is a focus of stroke therapies, much attention is also on neuroprotective properties. Adding behavioral and functional outcome measures to preclinical studies is important to evaluate the impact on impairments that occur following stroke: learning, memory, motor function and sensory. There are many behavior tests, each having different sensitivities to deficits associated with particular areas of brain damage.

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Topics: Neuro/CNS

Toll-like Receptor Family Member 4 (TLR4) in Neuropathic Pain

Posted by MD Biosciences on Mar 19, 2012 10:55:00 AM

In the context of neuropathic pain (NP), toll-like receptor member 4 (TLR4) is known to be expressed exclusively on spinal microglia and significantly up-regulated upon peripheral nerve injury. TLR4-knockout mice display reduced effects of chronic chonstriction injury (CCI) induced nerve damage. Similary, TLR4 loss-of-function mutant mice as well as TLR4 antisense oligonucleotide-treated rats both display attenuated neuropathic pain symptoms after nerve damage. Further, intrathecal administration of a TLR4 antagonist after CCI treatment results in relief of neuropathic pain symptoms. Many exogenous and endogenous ligands are known to stimulate TLR4-mediated signaling. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies involving spinal nerve ligation (SNL) treated animals implicate Fibronectin in neuropathic pain-related TLR4 signaling. Fibronectin is an extracellular matrix protein that is commonly produced in response to tissue injury. When administered intrathecally to intact rats, Fibronectin induces microglial up-regulation of the purigenic receptor, P2X4, and symptoms of neuropathic pain. This stimulation of P2X4 expression can be suppressed by interuption of Fibronectin binding the TLR4 receptor after SNL injury in rats. 

Download the rest of the eBook on 5 key pathways to microglial activation.

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Topics: Pain

Pain-related Characteristics | MIA-induced Preclinical OA Model

Posted by MD Biosciences on Mar 9, 2012 11:06:00 AM

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a widespread condition that affects greater than 70% of the elderly population and poses a heavy cost burden on healthcare. It is a chronic degenerative disease characterized byt the loss of articular cartilage components, which affects the entire joint structure. One of the major complaints by OA patients is the loss of joint function as well as chronic pain. Current therapies are focused on alleviating joint pain, however full pain relief is rarely experienced and significant side affects are commonly present. Research is not only focused disease pathology but also on understanding the mechanisms responsible for induction and maintenance of pain states.

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Topics: Pain

Focal & Global ischemia Stroke Model eBook

Posted by MD Biosciences on Feb 28, 2012 12:15:00 PM

There are currently a large number of well-characterized, ischemic stroke animal models available for pre-clinical research. These models can be categorized into those two groups – those for the study of stroke-associated risk factors and those for the study of stroke pathophysiology. The latter can be further separated into models of focal verses global ischemia and are listed:[1]

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Topics: Neuro/CNS

Inflammation After Acute ischemic Stroke | Preclinical Models

Posted by MD Biosciences on Feb 14, 2012 4:00:00 PM

The most common form of stroke is acute ischemic stroke (approximately 85% of cases), which is caused by either an atherothrombosis in a major cervical or intracranial artery or an embolism that travels from the heart. The resulting occlusion causes a sudden deficiency of oxygen and glucose in the brain region normally serviced by the blocked artery. Victims of large-vessel ischemic strokes lose on the order of 100 million neurons per hour prior to treatment, causing immediate, permanent neural damage in the infarct area, termed the ischemic core. Further neural damage occurs in the areas surrounding the core, called the penumbra, where the tissue becomes highly inflamed and slowly dies. Stroke sufferers experience a range of neurological deficits including partial paralysis, impaired memory, loss of speech, and/or decreased cognition and many become permanently disabled, requiring institutional care. [1-4]

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Topics: Neuro/CNS

Microglial involvement in Neuropathic Pain: 5 activation pathways

Posted by MD Biosciences on Oct 26, 2011 10:25:00 AM

Neuroinflammation is a common thread in neuropathic pain (NP), regardless of the conditions under which neuropathic pain develops. This opens up a whole new avenue for investigations into neuropathic pain pathology. Since the primary cell type responsible for immune-like functions in the CNS is microglia, many researchers have turned their attention toward working to better understand microglial physiology and its potential involvement in neuropathic pain.

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Topics: Pain

Overview of Microglial Cells in the CNS

Posted by MD Biosciences on Oct 24, 2011 4:56:00 PM

Of the roughly 70% of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that are glia, appromixately 5-10% are microglial cells. Microglial cells are derived from peripheral myeloid progenitor cells that enter the CNS during embryonic development. Though ubiquitous in the CNS, microglial cell densities vary by region. They function to provide structural and trophic support to neurons and serve as the resident immune-competent cells of the CNS, tasked with:

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Topics: Neuro/CNS

Neuropathic Pain | Receptor & Receptor Ion Channels

Posted by MD Biosciences on Jun 7, 2011 10:58:00 AM

This post continues on our discussion of potential inflammation-related drug targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain. See also Pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines as targets in neuropathic pain.

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Topics: Pain

Choosing DNCB or FITC-induced Contact Hypersensitivity Models

Posted by MD Biosciences on Jun 1, 2011 10:37:00 AM

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Topics: Dermal, Inflammation

Cardiovascular Disease & Underlying Inflammatory Events

Posted by MD Biosciences on May 10, 2011 3:51:00 PM

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) including heart disease, vascular disease and atherosclerosis are the most critical global health threats.

An estimated 26 million people are living with the effects of heart disease and is a major cause of death in western society. Until recently the widely held belief was that the CVD is simply the process as a build up of fat on the surface of artery walls. Eventually, this build up of fat blocks the artery and a heart attack or stroke occurs. However, the process has now been identified as a disease of the inner artery wall (intima) and inflammation is a key factor in its progression.

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Topics: Inflammation, Cardiovascular