Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that results in motor, sensory and cognitive impairment. MS is one of the most common disabling neurological diseases in young adults and is more prevalent in Caucasians of northern European ancestry. The disease course is unpredictable and life-long, and affects women more commonly than men. The main characteristics of this disease are focal areas of demyelination and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the CNS. Despite numerous studies and experimental trials a complete understanding of the pathogenesis still remains unclear. The etiology of the disease seems to be dependent on genetic and environmental factors, which result in substantial observed variations throughout the course of the disease. Today, new treatments and medications are advancing hope for people affected by the disease, and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model continues to play an essential role in MS drug development.