MD Biosciences Blog

Pain-related Characteristics | MIA-induced Preclinical OA Model

Posted by MD Biosciences on Mar 9, 2012 10:06:00 AM

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a widespread condition that affects greater than 70% of the elderly population and poses a heavy cost burden on healthcare. It is a chronic degenerative disease characterized byt the loss of articular cartilage components, which affects the entire joint structure. One of the major complaints by OA patients is the loss of joint function as well as chronic pain. Current therapies are focused on alleviating joint pain, however full pain relief is rarely experienced and significant side affects are commonly present. Research is not only focused disease pathology but also on understanding the mechanisms responsible for induction and maintenance of pain states.

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Topics: Pain

Microglial involvement in Neuropathic Pain: 5 activation pathways

Posted by MD Biosciences on Oct 26, 2011 9:25:00 AM

Neuroinflammation is a common thread in neuropathic pain (NP), regardless of the conditions under which neuropathic pain develops. This opens up a whole new avenue for investigations into neuropathic pain pathology. Since the primary cell type responsible for immune-like functions in the CNS is microglia, many researchers have turned their attention toward working to better understand microglial physiology and its potential involvement in neuropathic pain.

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Topics: Pain

Behavior-based Preclinical Nerve Injury Model Findings

Posted by MD Biosciences on Aug 24, 2011 3:00:00 PM

We get a lot of questions on the various neuropathic pain models and how to choose the one that's most appropriate or a comparison of what's involved with each model (e.g. surgery, behaviors, centralization, peripheral vs central involvement etc). We thought it may be helpful to discuss the various aspects of these models to assist with the selection and understanding of the mechanisms and behaviors. Of course, it ultimately depends on the drug target and the pathway involved and we can certainly discuss individual specifics with you.

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Topics: Pain

eBook: Pain & Inflammation Linkage | Targets in Overlap

Posted by MD Biosciences on Jul 19, 2011 12:34:00 PM

Neuropathic pain presents a wide variety of challenges to researchers, not the least of which is the simple fact that neuropathic pain, by definition, requires neuronal damage, which in turn automatically initiates immune response that often inflicts further neuronal damage. The interactions between the nervous system and immune system in the case of neuropathic pain make for a very complex story that is only beginning to unfold:

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Topics: Pain, Inflammation

Neuropathic Pain | Receptor & Receptor Ion Channels

Posted by MD Biosciences on Jun 7, 2011 9:58:00 AM

This post continues on our discussion of potential inflammation-related drug targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain. See also Pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines as targets in neuropathic pain.

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Topics: Pain

Inflammation & Pain Processing: Customizable Preclinical Models

Posted by MD Biosciences on May 4, 2011 1:46:00 PM


Chronic, destructive inflammation is at the core of a wide variety of diseases and conditions.

Inflammation, whether acute or chronic, is very often associated with pain. Similar to inflammation, pain can be physiological (an adaptive means of protecting tissues from real or perceived danger) or pathological (chronic, and often debilitating despite resolution of the original stimulus). Chronic pain can be caused by a variety of situations including inflammatory diseases such as osteo‐ and rheumatoid arthritis (inflammatory pain), tumor formation (cancer pain), and nerve injury (neuropathic pain).

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Topics: Pain, Inflammation

Anti-inflammatory Cytokines | Potential Targets In Neuropathic Pain

Posted by MD Biosciences on Apr 15, 2011 9:29:00 AM

We are continuing our series on the immune system, inflammation related factors and potential drup targets that fall in the overlap of the immune and nervous system. Our last discussion covered the pro-inflammatory cytokines and their relevance to neuropathic pain. This week we will cover anti-inflammatory cytokines.

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Topics: Pain, Inflammation

Pro-inflammatory Cytokines | Potential Neuropathic Pain Targets

Posted by MD Biosciences on Apr 4, 2011 1:06:00 PM

Over the past few weeks we have been reviewing the overlap between the nervous and immune systems. We recently discussed the various cell types involved and are going to move into some of the various inflammation related drug targets that may have potential involvement in neuropathic pain. We'll start with pro-inflammatory cytokines.

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Topics: Pain

Cells Involvement|Neuro/Immune Interactions Along Pain Processing Pathway

Posted by MD Biosciences on Mar 15, 2011 2:19:00 PM

Previously we discussed various interactions that occur between the immune and nervous systems that are potential contributors to neuroinflammatory disorders. In this post, we will call out some of the specific cells involved in these interactions.

At the anatomical level, neuro‐immune interactions have been shown to take place all along the pain processing pathway. This is partially facilitated by increased permeability of the blood‐brain barrier following SCI or peripheral nerve injury [1]. At the cellular level, neuro‐immune interactions involve leukocytes including mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and T cells as well as glial cells with immunelike functions including Schwann cells and satellite glial cells in the PNS and microglia and astrocytes in the CNS. Alterations in glial cell function other than those associated with immune cells, immune system signaling molecules, or immune‐like functions of glial cells (i.e., alterations in neurotrophic factor signaling, potassium ion buffering, neurotransmitter re‐uptake, or gap junction maintenance) are outside the scope of this review and are not included here.

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Topics: Pain, Inflammation

Nervous & Immune System Interactions | Preclinical Targets

Posted by MD Biosciences on Mar 3, 2011 2:28:00 PM

Some of the most interesting and rapidly developing areas inbiomedical science are those being built between the lines previously drawn around classical fields of study. Neuroimmunology is jsut one of the many examples and is a field that is growing as researchers find interactions between the nervous and immune systems not previously known, and discover that some well-known disorders perhaps fall into this overlap category.

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Topics: Pain, Inflammation