MD Biosciences Blog

2015 Recap|Clinical Diagnostics & Translational Research

Posted by MD Biosciences on Dec 17, 2015 5:57:36 PM

As we wind down to years end, we at MD Biosciences would like to thank everyone, especially our collaborators, for making this year a success. We have undergone significant growth that we expect to continue throughout the upcoming year.

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Topics: Pain, Inflammation, Neuro/CNS, post-operative pain, cancer/tumor, Microbiome, Biomarkers, CLIA, Neuropathy

Toll-like Receptor Family Member 4 (TLR4) in Neuropathic Pain

Posted by MD Biosciences on Mar 19, 2012 10:55:00 AM

In the context of neuropathic pain (NP), toll-like receptor member 4 (TLR4) is known to be expressed exclusively on spinal microglia and significantly up-regulated upon peripheral nerve injury. TLR4-knockout mice display reduced effects of chronic chonstriction injury (CCI) induced nerve damage. Similary, TLR4 loss-of-function mutant mice as well as TLR4 antisense oligonucleotide-treated rats both display attenuated neuropathic pain symptoms after nerve damage. Further, intrathecal administration of a TLR4 antagonist after CCI treatment results in relief of neuropathic pain symptoms. Many exogenous and endogenous ligands are known to stimulate TLR4-mediated signaling. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies involving spinal nerve ligation (SNL) treated animals implicate Fibronectin in neuropathic pain-related TLR4 signaling. Fibronectin is an extracellular matrix protein that is commonly produced in response to tissue injury. When administered intrathecally to intact rats, Fibronectin induces microglial up-regulation of the purigenic receptor, P2X4, and symptoms of neuropathic pain. This stimulation of P2X4 expression can be suppressed by interuption of Fibronectin binding the TLR4 receptor after SNL injury in rats. 

Download the rest of the eBook on 5 key pathways to microglial activation.

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Topics: Pain

Pain-related Characteristics | MIA-induced Preclinical OA Model

Posted by MD Biosciences on Mar 9, 2012 11:06:00 AM

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a widespread condition that affects greater than 70% of the elderly population and poses a heavy cost burden on healthcare. It is a chronic degenerative disease characterized byt the loss of articular cartilage components, which affects the entire joint structure. One of the major complaints by OA patients is the loss of joint function as well as chronic pain. Current therapies are focused on alleviating joint pain, however full pain relief is rarely experienced and significant side affects are commonly present. Research is not only focused disease pathology but also on understanding the mechanisms responsible for induction and maintenance of pain states.

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Topics: Pain

Microglial involvement in Neuropathic Pain: 5 activation pathways

Posted by MD Biosciences on Oct 26, 2011 10:25:00 AM

Neuroinflammation is a common thread in neuropathic pain (NP), regardless of the conditions under which neuropathic pain develops. This opens up a whole new avenue for investigations into neuropathic pain pathology. Since the primary cell type responsible for immune-like functions in the CNS is microglia, many researchers have turned their attention toward working to better understand microglial physiology and its potential involvement in neuropathic pain.

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Topics: Pain

Neuropathic Pain | Receptor & Receptor Ion Channels

Posted by MD Biosciences on Jun 7, 2011 10:58:00 AM

This post continues on our discussion of potential inflammation-related drug targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain. See also Pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines as targets in neuropathic pain.

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Topics: Pain