MD Biosciences Blog

Post-stroke Neuroinflammation | Astrocytes & Microglia

Posted by MD Biosciences on Jul 9, 2012 12:22:00 PM

Post-stroke neuroinflammation is a very complex phenomenon involving multiple resident and invading cell types at varying degrees of differentiation or activation - each expressing specific subsets of diffusable factors, receptors, cellular adhesion molecules and other markers - all of which is changing as time passes to create an initially neurotoxic and then finally neuroprotective environment. This inflammatory process in the penumbra offers a broad array of potential cellular and molecular targets with much wider therapeutic windows.

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Topics: Neuro/CNS

MMPs in ischemic conditions (stroke and myocardial infarct)

Posted by MD Biosciences on Jun 25, 2012 2:20:00 PM

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that function to degrade extracellular matrix. The turnover of ECM in organs is regulated by a balance by MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs) and the imbalance is implicated in a variety of diseases. Here we focus on the roles of MMPs in ischemia - particularly cerebral stroke and myocardial infarct.

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Topics: Neuro/CNS, Cardiovascular

iSchemia Cerebral Models | Stroke & Neurodegeneration

Posted by MD Biosciences on Apr 19, 2012 6:45:00 AM

Preclinical stroke models are critical to our understanding of the mechanisms and neurological deficits following human stroke. While reducing infarct size is a focus of stroke therapies, much attention is also on neuroprotective properties. Adding behavioral and functional outcome measures to preclinical studies is important to evaluate the impact on impairments that occur following stroke: learning, memory, motor function and sensory. There are many behavior tests, each having different sensitivities to deficits associated with particular areas of brain damage.

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Topics: Neuro/CNS

Focal & Global ischemia Stroke Model eBook

Posted by MD Biosciences on Feb 28, 2012 11:15:00 AM

There are currently a large number of well-characterized, ischemic stroke animal models available for pre-clinical research. These models can be categorized into those two groups – those for the study of stroke-associated risk factors and those for the study of stroke pathophysiology. The latter can be further separated into models of focal verses global ischemia and are listed:[1]

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Topics: Neuro/CNS

Inflammation After Acute ischemic Stroke | Preclinical Models

Posted by MD Biosciences on Feb 14, 2012 3:00:00 PM

The most common form of stroke is acute ischemic stroke (approximately 85% of cases), which is caused by either an atherothrombosis in a major cervical or intracranial artery or an embolism that travels from the heart. The resulting occlusion causes a sudden deficiency of oxygen and glucose in the brain region normally serviced by the blocked artery. Victims of large-vessel ischemic strokes lose on the order of 100 million neurons per hour prior to treatment, causing immediate, permanent neural damage in the infarct area, termed the ischemic core. Further neural damage occurs in the areas surrounding the core, called the penumbra, where the tissue becomes highly inflamed and slowly dies. Stroke sufferers experience a range of neurological deficits including partial paralysis, impaired memory, loss of speech, and/or decreased cognition and many become permanently disabled, requiring institutional care. [1-4]

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Topics: Neuro/CNS

Overview of Microglial Cells in the CNS

Posted by MD Biosciences on Oct 24, 2011 3:56:00 PM

Of the roughly 70% of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that are glia, appromixately 5-10% are microglial cells. Microglial cells are derived from peripheral myeloid progenitor cells that enter the CNS during embryonic development. Though ubiquitous in the CNS, microglial cell densities vary by region. They function to provide structural and trophic support to neurons and serve as the resident immune-competent cells of the CNS, tasked with:

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Topics: Neuro/CNS

EAE Preclinical Model Associated With FDA Approved MS Drugs

Posted by MD Biosciences on Aug 24, 2010 9:54:00 AM

The Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) model is associated with FDA Approved MS Drugs and Fingolimod

Introduction:
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that results in motor, sensory and cognitive impairment. MS is one of the most common disabling neurological diseases in young adults and is more prevalent in Caucasians of northern European ancestry. The disease course is unpredictable and life-long, and affects women more commonly than men.  The main characteristics of this disease are focal areas of demyelination and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the CNS. Despite numerous studies and experimental trials a complete understanding of the pathogenesis still remains unclear. The etiology of the disease seems to be dependent on genetic and environmental factors, which result in substantial observed variations throughout the course of the disease. Today, new treatments and medications are advancing hope for people affected by the disease, and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model continues to play an essential role in MS drug development.

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Topics: Inflammation, Neuro/CNS

What PD in Vivo Models Revealed About Pathogenesis & Treatment

Posted by MD Biosciences on Aug 11, 2010 8:00:00 AM

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is typically an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Pathologically, PD is characterized by the profound and specific loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of the midbrain. Other areas interconnected with the SNpc, the caudate and putamen, collectively known as the striatum, also show remarkable loss of their projection fibers. In accordance with insult to brain regions involved in controlling coordinated movements, the cardinal symptoms of PD include bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability (1). To date, research into the etiology of
PD has revealed that most cases are sporadic, though some thirteen genetic loci have been identified to be disease-related (2). Examination of the biochemical properties of these mutant proteins and the pathways in which they are involved has led to the uncovering of three basic pathogenetic pathways common to both heritable and idiopathic forms of PD: (i) abnormal protein control, (ii) mitochondrial dysfunction, and (iii) altered kinase activity (2). Progress towards the identification of disease-related genes has thus led to the expansion of animal models of PD from the classic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)- and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxin models to genetic models of the disease. Due to its complex pathology, however, no animal disease model has yet to faithfully replicate all aspects of human PD. With the evolution of such models, though, converging lines of evidence from toxin-induced and genetic models have continued to further our understanding of the pathological processes underlying PD and lend themselves as useful systems for the examination of therapeutic interventions.

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Topics: Neuro/CNS

MS Whitepaper: EAE Models | Evaluating Neuroprotective Treatment

Posted by MD Biosciences on Apr 20, 2010 9:12:00 AM

Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), occuring at all stages of disease. It is a main source of disability, social impairment and has a great impact on an individuals quality of life. In the clinic, factors that can affect MS-related cognitive impairment are disease course, fatigue, and affective disturbance.  While the neurochemical basis underlying motor and cognitive defects in patients with MS is unclear, it appears that a balance of tissue destruction, tissue repair and adaptive function reorganization are related to the degree of impairment.

Its most commonly believed that MS is an autoimmune disease in which the body's own immune system recognizes myelin proteins or myelin related proteins as foreign and marks them for destruction. In the body's periphery, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II proteins expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC) mistakenly bind to these proteins. This causes a naive-T (Th0) to bind to the antige and undergo activation and differentiation. Adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) help T-helper 1 (TH1) cells stick and penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB) into the CNS, they engage antigen-MHC complexes and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to damage in the CNS. 

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Topics: Inflammation, Neuro/CNS